* The Photoshop Collection provides an inexpensive way to get started with Adobe Photoshop. A Digital Press Training DVD is available separately from the software. Chapter 5 of this book provides an introduction to the program as well as a discussion of general Photoshop rules.
* Purchasing the Photoshop Elements program at a fraction of the cost of the full Photoshop program provides several great features, including most of Photoshop’s editing tools, free printing, editing video, and more. You can find out more about this program at www.adobe.com/photos/products/elements/about.html.

* * *

# Meeting the Major Tools of Photoshop

Photoshop uses the familiar tools found on the tools palette (see Figure 12-4). From top to bottom: the New Document button, the Image button, the Edit ▸ Picture Tools ▸ Adjust Color button, the Select ▸ Modify ▸ Contract tool, the Select ▸ Modify ▸ Expand tool, the Color ▸ Levels tool, the Edit ▸ Fill button, the Image ▸ Adjust ▸ Invert tool, the Select ▸ Modify ▸ Convolve tool, the Select ▸ Modify ▸ Blur tool, the Select ▸ Modify ▸ Sharpen tool, the Blur ▸ Sharpen tool, the Select ▸ Modify ▸ Curves tool, the Select ▸ Modify ▸ Distort tool, the Select ▸ Modify ▸ Reduce Noise tool, the Select ▸ Modify ▸ Adjust Noise ▸ Sharpen Noise ▸ Reduce Noise tool, and the select ▸ Modify ▸ Emboss tool.

**Figure 12-4:** The Tools palette contains most of Photoshop’s editing tools.

|
— | —

In addition to the tools palette, there are three stacks of tools available in Photoshop. These stacks are described in Table 12-2.

Table 12-2 Stacks of Photoshop Tools

Stack | What It Does

— | —

Tools | This stack is in the middle of the workspace and contains all of Photoshop’s standard editing tools. It includes the Layers panel, the Paths panel, the Filter panel, and the Channels panel.

Swatch | This stack is on the left of the Tools stack. It contains all of Photoshop’s swatches.

Custom Colors | This stack is on the right of the Tools stack. It contains the

It is available as a standalone version, and an online version, Adobe Photoshop Touch for mobile devices and as a web app. It also contains a web version, which is just like the desktop version except that it opens in the browser window instead of in a new window.

Adobe Photoshop Elements is available in several languages. French, German, Italian, Russian and Spanish are available in English.

The dark theme can be applied for user interface elements on the web version to give it a similar look to that of the desktop version.

Software features of Adobe Photoshop Elements

Adobe Photoshop Elements is an online tool that contains all the basic Adobe Photoshop Elements tools for editing and creating new high quality images.

It contains the following features:

Basic editing

Image creation

Photo and video effects

Scratch-art creation

Photoshop

Create drawing, painting and 3D effects

More tools

Filter

Stamp

Layer

Clone

Smart object

Live text

Convert to type

Create cross-processing images

Rotate

Trim

Cropping

Smart object

Effects for retouching

Rotate

Clone

Grow

Blur

Lighten and Darken

Color Correction

Bring Out The Colors

Bucket Fill

Healing Brush

Match

Exposure

Color Invert

Levels

Sepia

Hue/Saturation

Brightness/Contrast

Dodge and Burn

Vignette

Sharpen

Smooth

Retouch

Motion Blur

Glow

Texture

Replace Color

Bleach Bricks

Instant Art

Artistic Edges

Red Eye

Invert Colors

Blacks and Whites

Vignette VE

Smooth Brush

Spill Removal

Smudge

Crop

Blur

Auto Smoothing

Flatten

Blacks and Whites

Levels

Automatic

Grain

Fractal filter

Simplify

Sort Layers

Zoom Extents

Develop

Exposure
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Figures given are mean ± SD from 10 cells for each condition.

[^1]: Academic Editor: Jeffrey C. Wang
other hand, a generalized Gibbs ensemble with long-range correlations would have the following property: the probability of having one large (with size $\propto L$) cluster with $n$ spins flipped can be made arbitrarily small at any temperature. This would in turn imply that the time necessary to re-equilibrate such a system will be of the order of $L^2$. Such a behavior is much faster than the typical behavior $L^4$ found here. This shows that the local character of the correlations observed in our model are strong enough to prevent the complete local equilibration of the system.

In the limit $T\to 0$ the distribution does not change with time. This happens because when $T\to 0$, the strength of the interactions becomes infinite, and by the Mermin-Wagner theorem[@Mera], all fluctuations are suppressed. To make this statement more rigorous, one could analyze the evolution of each single-spin probability density function and show that all single-site probability densities converge towards the same function which does not depend on the lattice geometry. This is straightforward to show, and we leave it for a future publication. This is indeed what is observed in our numerical simulations for the case of the Curie-Weiss model as well as for the variants E and ISA.

For the case of $T\to \infty$, the probability distribution tends to $1/3$ for all the studied variants of the model. The distribution is the closest to $\frac{1}{3}$ when it is the largest (ground state of the Hamiltonian). A simple explanation of this fact comes from the fact that in this limit, all the spin-spin correlations vanish (due to the different ground state energy). Hence, the only relevant factors in the dynamics are the relative concentrations of the four types of interactions (see Eq. (\[H

## What’s New in the?

—– Forwarded by Steven J Kean/NA/Enron on 11/16/2000 05:33 PM —–

Steven J Kean
11/09/2000 09:57 AM

To: Nicholas O’Day/AP/Enron@Enron
cc: Maureen McVicker/NA/Enron@Enron, James D Steffes/NA/Enron@Enron
Subject:

Nick-
I need to catch up with you to make sure I’ve captured the correct issues
for you to review on the CA Power Plants. Since Enron owns the Turkey
Peakplant, is it appropriate to have a CA Power Marketer assume some
responsibility for the plant? I’m not sure what the terms of your arrangement
are. Would you like to talk before I talk to Jim?

Thanks,

SteveCardiovascular disease prevention in a primary care population: a model based on the nonmedical use of prescribed medications.
We assessed whether a model for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a general practice population is in place and whether this model can be applied in the primary care setting. A review of the practices of general practitioners (GPs) in the community revealed that 50.5% (n = 1,039) of patients received CVD risk assessments during the year. Twenty-five per cent of the population were smokers, and 77% of GPs considered smoking to be a greater CVD risk than blood pressure and cholesterol. More than 90% of the risk assessments identified the health risks, and 93% of the physicians perceived their role in CVD prevention to be as close to medical care as possible. However, only 28.5% of the GPs provided advice on smoking cessation, and 10% prescribed appropriate medications in the appropriate dosage. We identified the following changes in GP practice which would contribute to the prevention of CVD: recognition of the health risks of smoking; the inclusion of smoking cessation in routine CVD prevention; the prescription of appropriate medication with the correct dosage and instructions.Barriers to the Food Desert Strategy: The Role of Disparities in the Design of Effective Policies.
The Food Desert Strategy is a policy tool that uses the “food desert” concept to identify and address the rural and urban under- and underserved areas of North Carolina lacking access to healthy